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WH Oe riNS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY

1971

IN MEMORIAM

EpwINn C. ALLISON 1925-1971

Miss WINIFRED GOLDRING 1888-197]

WILLIAM B. HeErRoy, Sr. 1883-1971

FLoyp L. Hopson 1893-1971

MAx J. Kopr 1893-1971

MatcoLtm MAcLEop 1901-1970

NORMAN L. THOMAS 1897-1971

Miss E. C. WILLIAMS 1885-1971

CONTENTS OF VOLUME LX

Bulletin No.

264. Jurassic and Cretaceous Hagiastridae from the Blake-Bahama Basin (Site 5A, Joides Leg 1) and the Great Valley Sequence, California Coast Ranges.

By Emile A. Pessagno, Jr.

265. A New Species of Coronula (Cirripedia) from the Lower Pliocene of Venezuela.

By Norman E. Weisbord

266. Palynology and the Independence Shale of lowa.

By James B. Urban

267. Trepostomatous Ectoprocta (Bryozoa) from the Lower Chickamauga Group (Middle Ordo- vician), Wills Valley, Alabama.

By Frank K. McKinney

Pages

1-84

85-98

99-190

191-337

Plates

20

21-45

46-68

INDEX

No separate index is included in the volume, Each mumber is indexed separately, Contents of the volume are listed in the begin- ning of the volume,

1 i

BULLETINS

OF AMERICAN FAV rBONTOLOGY

(Founded 1895)

Vol. 60

No. 264

JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS HAGIASTRIDAE FROM THE BLAKE-BAHAMA BASIN (SITE 5A, JOIDES LEG 1) AND THE GREAT VALLEY SEQUENCE, CALIFORNIA COAST RANGES

By

EMILE A. PESSAGNO, JR.

Ee ISON) eo cos MA,

1971

Paleontological Research Institution Ithaca, New York 14850 U.S. A.

PALEONTOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTION

1970-71 IPRS TUNE NTs ois ee a i SO Re eRe ee EE WILLIAM B. HEROY WIGE =P RESTDEINST): c2.tetscos ese sek sae Fon ee seers nee ase eee ee DANIEL B. SAss SEGRE TARY) (sccm se he toed tee EE ey a ee ee oe Ne eS Be ek an REBECCA S. HARRIS DIRECTORS “TREASURER ) 2228 e oe eee aseecee ate eae KATHERINE V. W. PALMER OU SET a a D8 Ih Dak SEER ae Oe edo ARMAND L. ADAMS REPRESENTATIVE “AAAS ;COUNGCID ce cee ee ge ee Davip NICOL Trustees ReBecca S. Harris (Life) DoNnaALp W. FISHER (1967-1973) AXEL A. OLsson (Life) MERRILL W. HAAs (1970-1973) KATHERINE V.W. PALMER (Life) PuHitie C. WAKELEY (1970-1973) DANIEL B. Sass (1965-1971) WILLIAM B. HERoy (1968-1974) KENNETH E. CASTER (1966-1972) VirGiL D. WINKLER (1969-1975)

BULLETINS OF AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY

and PALAEONTOGRAPHICA AMERICANA

KATHERINE V. W. Pater, Editor Mrs. Fay Briccs, Secretary

Advisory Board

KENNETH E. CASTER HANS KUGLER A. MyrA KEEN Jay GLENN Marks AXEL A. OLSSON

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BUEN

OF

AMERICAN PALEONTOLOGY

(Founded 1895)

Vol. 60

No. 264

JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS HAGIASTRIDAE FROM THE BLAKE-BAHAMA BASIN (SITE 5A, JOIDES LEG 1) AND THE GREAT VALLEY SEQUENCE, CALIFORNIA COAST RANGES

By

EMILE A. PESSAGNO, JR.

April.29, 1971

Paleontological Research Institution Ithaca, New York 14850 U.S. A.

Library of Congress Card Number: 75-128176

Printed in the United States of America Arnold Printing Corporation

CONTENTS

Abstract

Introduction

Acknowledgments _

DO TSCUISS TOU eee ea he

Method of study

Locality descriptions ____

Notations on the integration of radiolarian range zones with planktonic foraminifera] zonation

ENTER NTT CN 9 219s ar er

Systematic paleontology —................2-... ano fo Eo what A ms er Superfamily Spongodiscacea Haeckel .. Pe 16 Family Hagiastridae Riede] _...-..- a Pe esc 249 Subfamily Amphibrachiinae, n. subfam. 20 Subfamily Patulibracchiinae, n. subfam. . ... See Subfamily Hagisastrinae Riedel 51 RESO aR 1 1 I eee 57

Plates

. 61

JURASSIC AND CRETACEOUS HAGIASTRIDAE FROM THE BLAKE-BAHAMA BASIN (SITE 5A, JOIDES LEG I) AND THE GREAT VALLEY SEQUENCE, CALIFORNIA COAST RANGES

EMILE A. PESSAGNO, JR.

ABSTRACT

The Hagiastridae Riedel include Spongodiscacea with two, three, or four- rayed tests comprised of layered spongy meshwork lacking concentric rings or spirals. This family appears to be restricted to the Mesozoic. It has a lengthy geologic history which extends at least as far back as the Jurassic. The ma- jority of hagiastrid species are distinctive and short ranging.

Twenty-four new species and four new genera are described herein from the Upper Cretaceous portion of the Great Valley Sequence, California Coast Ranges. Four new species are described from the late Jurassic (Tithonian) strata of the Blake-Bahama Basin (Site 5A, JOIDES Leg I).

In this report Spumellariina with spongy meshwork, irregardless of test shape, have been placed in the superfamily Spongodiscacea Haeckel.

INTRODUCTION

In the thick, monotonous flysch succession comprising most of the Great Valley Sequence, Radiolaria are far more abundant than any other kind of invertebrate fossils. During the course of the investigation a rich, diversified, well-preserved assemblage of Radio- laria was recovered from the Upper Cretaceous portion of the Great Valley Sequence. Samples were collected in this study from measured sections from Contra Costa County in the south to Tehama County in the north. In general, the best preserved Radiolaria occur in limestone nodules and concretions associated with the mudstones, shales, and siltstones of this flysch succession. The mudstones, shales, and siltstones often contain abundant Radiolaria. However, the Radiolaria extracted from these lithotypes are not nearly so well preserved as those occurring in the limestones.

This is the third in a series of reports dealing with the Upper Cretaceous Radiolaria of the California Coast Ranges (cf. Pessagno, 1969b, 1970). The present report differs somewhat in content from previous reports (Pessagno, ibid.) in that it also includes some Radiolaria from the Jurassic (Tithonian) strata of the Blake- Bahama Basin (JOIDES Leg I).

It is clear that faunal change displayed by the Upper Cretaceous Radiolaria of the California Coast Ranges is sufficiently great to allow establishing a detailed system of zonation. The Hagiastridae Riedel like the Neosciadiocapsidae Pessagno are a key group in fa-

Contribution Number 155, Geosciences Division, University of Texas at Dallas, P.O. Box 30365, Dallas, Texas 75230

6 BULLETIN 264

Seats 74

TERTIARY- QUATERNARY fay ex TERTIARY

SEDIMENTS VOLCANICS

GREAT JURASSIC - FRANCISCAN

VALLEY | cates + S| CRETACEOUS

SEQUENCE PLUTONICS

CJ-UK) NEVADIAN METAMORPHICS

TEXT - FIGURE 1: INDEX MAP. After Ojakangas, 1968, p.975

~I

JuRAssic-CRETACEOUS RADIOLARIA: PESSAGNO

cilitating the development of such a system of zonation. The Hagiastridae, in fact, appear to be one of the most important groups for biostratigraphic correlation in the Mesozoic. ‘They have a geo- logic history which extends at least as far back as the Jurassic. Furthermore, the Hagiastridae include a number of short ranging and highly distinctive species.

Numerous species assignable to the Hagiastridae were figured by the early workers on Mesozoic Radiolaria. Hagiastrid species were figured by Riist (1885, 1898), Parona, (1890), Squinabol (1903, 1914) , and various other workers who pioneered in the study of European Mesozoic Radiolaria.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation: GA-4043 to the University of California, Davis, GA-1224 to the Southwest Center for Advanced Studies, Dallas, Texas, GA-15998 to the University of Texas at Dallas, and by the general NASA grant (NGL - 44 - 004 - 001) to the Southwest Center for Advanced Studies. The writer wishes to thank Verne Harlan for his assistance in the field; to Walter Brown, Allen White, Charles Smith, and Mrs. Sheila Martin for their care in taking the scanning electron micrographs and preparing the illustrations; and to Miss Maria Bilelo for her help in the labora- tory. He particularly wishes to thank William R. Riedel (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) for his helpful comments regarding the manuscript. Numerous megafossils were kindly identified for the writer by David L. Jones, Paleontology and Stratigraphy Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California.

DISCUSSION

The inclusion of all Spumellariina with primarily spongy tests in the superfamily Spongodiscacea should lead to a more phylo- genetic classification. Previous workers have relied largely on test shape and symmetry in their classificatory schemes. Hence, Spumel- lariina whose tests are constructed out of the same sort of spongy meshwork were placed in radically different family or superfamily groupings largely dependent on their test shape. For example, Haeckel (1887, pp. 284-286; pp. 339-341) placed Spongoprunum Haeckel in the “Pronoidea’”’ largely on the basis of the ellipsoidal or cylindrical character of its test. Whereas Spongoprunum has (exclusive of polar spines) a completely spongy test, it is placed

8 BULLETIN 264

with other genera such as Ellipsostylus Haeckel and Xiphatractus Haeckel which possess one or more latticed shells. Many such examples can be cited from the literature.

It is clear that the present classification at the superfamily level cross-cuts Haeckelian classification. Yet it relates a large group of Spumellariina which build their tests out of spongy mesh- work and hopefully represents a more natural classification. If the shape of the test is to be emphasized, this investigator feels that it should be emphasized at the family or subfamily level.

The Spongodiscacea as defined herein have been subdivided into the Spongodiscilae Haeckel and the Pseudoaulophacilae Riedel. The former group includes forms which possess irregular spongy meshwork lacking any semblance of symmetrical arrangement; the latter group includes forms which possess spongy meshwork arranged in a more orderly, symmetrical fashion (i.e., in spirals, concentric rings, layers). The Hagistridae Riedel, the primary sub- ject of this report, are included in the Pseudoaulophacilae Riedel.

Criteria for the classification of the Hagiastridae at the family, subfamily, generic, and specific levels are summarized in Text- figure 4.

METHOD OF STUDY

The dense, spongy meshwork of the hagiastrid test makes it difficult to illustrate effectively with light optics. In this investiga- tion a JEOL JSM-1 scanning electron microscope equipped with a goniometer stage was used as the primary means of illustrating and studying hagiastrid morphology (cf. Honjo and Berggren, 1967, pp. 393-404, pls. 1-4; Hay and Sandberg, 1967, pp. 407-418, pls. 1,2).

Gold palladium or gold used in shadow casting can be removed, if desired, with a drop of aqua regia. However, in some cases it was found that shadow casting actually enhances specimen detail for optical observation. Specimens were mounted in caedax or hyrax for optical analysis with transmitted light. The number of air bubbles in the mounting medium can be appreciably reduced by degasing the hyrax or caedax under vacuum.

LOCALITY DESCRIPTIONS NSF 32-B. Lower part of the Forbes Formation (“Dobbins Shale” Member) ; 15 feet above contact between Forbes Formation and the underlying Guinda Formation. Gray calcareous mudstone

JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS RADIOLARIA: PESSAGNO 9

with abundant limestone nodules; sample from limestone nodules. Tributary to Petroleum Creek, Yolo County, California. U.S.G.S. Rumsey Quad. (7.5’). T12N, R3W, Sect. 10; 1.5 miles N43°W of VABM Guinda 1798. This locality occurs at about the same horizon as NSF 134-B. See planktonic foraminiferal and megafossil data presented under NSF 55-B.

NSF 55-B. Lower part of the Forbes Formation (upper part of so-called “Dobbins Shale’ Member); 424 feet above contact between Forbes Formation with underlying Guinda Formation. Gray calcareous mudstone with sparse limestone nodules. Tributary to Petroleum Creek, Yolo County, California USGS Rumsey Quad. G5) TZN, RSW, Sect 10; ‘1-5*miles*N 35° W of VABM Guinda 1798. Associated planktonic Foraminifera recorded by the writer from this horizon include Globotruncana arca (Cushman) , Globo- truncana rosetta (Carsey), Globotruncana loeblichi Pessagno, Rugoglobigerina sp. aff. R. rugosa (Plummer), Globotruncana linneiana s. s. (d’Orbigny) , Globotruncana lapparenti s. s. Brotzen, and Ventilabrella ornatissima (Cushman and Church) . The lack of Globotruncana hilli Pessagno and Globotruncana churchi Martin in this assemblage suggests an early Campanian age (see data presented by Douglas, 1969, p. 154 and Pessagno, 1967, 1969a, text-figure 5). “Inoceramus orientalis’ (identified by D. L. Jones, U. S. Geol. Survey, Menlo, Park, California) was collected by the writer at NSF 40-B in the lower Forbes (“Dobbins Shale” Member). According to Jones this species is indicative of an early Campanian age. NSF 40-B is situated 295 feet below NSF 55-B and 128 feet above the Forbes - Guinda contact.

NSF 134-B. Lower part of the Forbes Formation (“Dobbins Shale” Member) ; 60 feet above contact between Forbes Formation and the underlying Guinda Formation. Gray calcareous mudstone with abundant limestone nodules; sample from limestone nodules. Tributary to Petroleum Creek, Yolo County, California. USGS Rumsey Quadrangle (7.5’).T12N, R3W, Sect. 15; 1.1 miles N36°W of VABM Guinda 1798. Planktonic Foraminifera recovered from mudstones (NSF 134-A) at this locality include Globotruncana arca (Cushman) , Globotruncana rosetta (Carsey) s. 1., Globotruncana lapparenti Brotzen.

NSF 291-B. Yolo Formation [Upper part of type Yolo at north

10 BULLETIN 264

bank of Cache Creek, Yolo County]. Limestone nodules interbedded with dark gray calcareous mudstones and siltstones; 140 feet below the contact of the Yolo Formation with the overlying Sites Forma- tion. USGS Glascock Mountain Quad. (7.5’) ; T12N, R4W, Sect. 2; 0.15 miles downstream from northwest end of Rt. 16 bridge over Cache Creek. An ammonite collected from this locality by the writer and identified by D. L. Jones (USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.) as “Kossmaticeras atf. K. japonicum” indicates (fide Jones) that NSF 291-B is Coniacian in age.

NSF 316-B. Middle part of the Sites Formation at Cache Creek, Yolo County, California. Gray calcareous shales and silt- stones with small limestone nodules. Sample from north side of creek, six feet away from large fault zone. USGS Glascock Mountain Quadrangle (7.5’) ; T12N, R4W, Sect. 2; 0.4 miles downstream from the Rt. 16 bridge over Cache Creek. About 1293 feet above the con- tact between the Sites Formation and the underlying Yolo Forma- tion. See biostratigraphic data presented under NSF 319-B.

NSF 319-B. Upper part of the Sites Formation at Cache Creek, Yolo County, California. Sample from limestone nodules occurr- ing in gray siliceous mudstones cropping out along Rt. 16. USGS Glascock Mountain Quad. (7.5’); T12N, R4W, Sect. 2; 0.25 miles due north of Camp Haswell (Boy Scouts of Amer.) ; about 1961.0 feet above the base of the Sites Formation. A Coniacian ammonite, collected by the writer and identified by D. L. Jones (USGS) as “Kossmaticeras aff. K. japonicum” was recovered from the upper part of the underlying Yolo Formation. Coniacian planktonic Fora- minifera (correlative with the Marginotruncana renzi Assemblage Zone of Pessagno, 1967, 1969a) have been recovered by the writer from the lower portion of the overlying Funks Formation at nearby Rumsey Canyon.

NSF 327-C. Upper part of the Sites Formation at Cache Creek, Yolo County, California. Sample from limestone nodules occurring in gray siliceous mudstones cropping out along Rt. 16. USGS Glascock Mountain Quad. (7.5’) ; T12N, R4W, Sect. 2; 0.22 miles due north of Camp Haswell (Boy Scouts of Amer.) ; about 2675.0 feet above the base of the Sites. See biostratigraphic data presented for NSF-319-B.

NSF 350. Limestone nodule from the lower portion of the “Antelope Shale’ /“Fiske Creek Formation” cropping out along

Jurassic-CRETACEOUS RADIOLARIA: PESSAGNO 1]

the north bank of Cache Creek, Yolo County, California. USGS Glascock Mountain Quad. (7.5’); T12N, R4W, Sect. 4; 0.13 miles S35°W of Rayhouse Road crossing of Cache Creek at “Low Water Bridge.” NSF 350 occurs 542 feet above a horizon containing common Praeglobotruncana stephani (Gandolfi) and 658 feet be- low beds containing Rotalipora greenhornensis (Morrow) and Rotalipora appenninica (O. Renz). NSF 350 likewise occurs 1,047 feet below beds containing Calycoceras sp. (late Cenomanian form) , Rotalipora cushmani (Morrow), Rotalipora appenninica (O. Renz), and Hedbergella brittonensis Loeblich and Tappan. (Planktonic forminiferal identifications are the writer’s; ammonite identifica- ton by D. L. Jones, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Cali- fornia.) The planktonic foraminiferal data indicate that NSF 350 is definitely of Cenomanian age. In that NSF 350 appears to occur below the R. cushmani (Morrow) datum point (cf. Text-figure 2), it is most likely correlative with the Rotalipora evoluta Sub- zone of Pessagno, 1967, 1969. Data presented by Renz, Luter- bacher, and Schneider (1963, pp. 1073-1116) indicate that R. cushmani makes its first appearance within the upper part of the Mantelliceras mantelli Zone (early Cenomanian) of the Neuen- burger Jura.

NSF 405. Limestone nodule from the late Cenomanian por- tion of “Antelope Shale’’/‘“Fiske Creek’? Formation; 0.6 miles southwest of Monticello Dam on Route 128; USGS Monticello Dam Quad. (7.5’). T8N, R2W, Sect. 29. Ammonites identified for the writer from this locality by D. L. Jones (U.S. Geol. Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.) include Acanthoceras sp. and Puzosia sp. A prelim- inary report by Jones indicates that the ammonites are of late Cenomanian age.

NSF 440. Yolo Formation. Limestone nodules interbedded with dark gray shales. Monticello Dam Quad. (7.5’); T8N, R2W, Sect. 28. North side of Putah Creek, Yolo County; mouth of Thompson Canyon; 0.35 miles due east of north end of Monticello Dam.

NSF 450 NSF 451. Limestone nodules associated with light eray calcareous mudstones. Upper part of Panoche Group (un- differentiated) . Exploration Adit number 1: 110-270 feet. Califor- nia Dept. of Water Resources. Div. of Design and Construction;

12 BULLETIN 264

Del Valle Dam and Reservoir Damsite Foundation Exploration. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Tesla Quad. (15’). Coordinates E1,639,000; N408,250. Associated planktonic Foraminifera at this horizon include Globotruncana churchi Martin, Globotruncana hilli Pessagno, Globotruncana linneiana (d’Orbigny), Globotrun- cana arca (Cushman) , Globotruncana bulloides Vogler, Globotrun- cana rosetta (Carsey) and Ventilabrella ornatissima (Cushman and Church). Data presented by Pessagno (1967, 1969a) demonstrate that Globotruncana hilli Pessagno first appears at the base of the Globotruncana calcarata Zonule. Douglas (1969, p. 154) indicated that G. churchi is restricted to the late Campanian.

NSF 482. Forbes Formation; lower part of “Dobbins Shale” Member near contact with underlying Guinda Formation. Abun- dant limestone nodules associated with dark gray mudstones. USGS Brooks Quad. (7.5’); R2W, TION, Sect. 30; 0.22 miles N20°E of Big Spring, Yolo County, California. Associated megafossils col- lected at this locality by the writer and identified by D. L. Jones (USGS, Menlo Park, California) include “Jnoceramus orientalis, Bostrychoceras sp. and Anagaudryceras sp.” Jones indicated that the megafossils are of early Campanian age.

NSF 483. Yolo Formation. Horizon of small limestone nodules in a sequence of dark gray mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. Monticello Dam Quad. (7.5’); T8N, R2W, Sect. 28. Route 128 (Solano County) at southeast side of horseshoe bend in road; Cold Canyon; 0.23 miles southwest of Route 128 highway bridge over Putah Creek.

NSF 531. Lower part of the Forbes Formation (“Dobbins Shale” Member). Gray calcareous mudstones with limestone nod- ules; sample from limestone nodule. Exposure in bluff on west side of Salt Creek, Colusa County, California. USGS Rumsey Quad- rangle (7.5’) > TI3N; R3W, Sect.. 7.. Adjacent ‘to. Dobbins* Raneh: 0.2 miles S60°W from BM 584. Campanian ammonites, chiefly Patagoniosites arbucklensis (Anderson) were collected at this lo- cality by the writer and identified by D. L. Jones (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park). Matsumoto (1960, p. 83) reported this species together with Gaudryceras sp. cf. G. striatum (Jimbo), and Ino- ceramus schmidti Michael from the same locality.

NSF 568-B, 572-B. “Marsh Creek Formation.’ Samples from

JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS RADIOLARIA: PESSAGNO 13

limestone nodules interbedded with dark gray siliceous to cal- careous mudstones. Antioch South Quad. (7.5’); TIN, R2E, Sect. 32. South bank of Marsh Creek, Deer Valley Road crossing of Marsh Creek, Contra Costa County, California. NSF 568-B by bridge; NSF 572-B 0.10 to 0.15 miles downstream from bridge. Associated planktonic Foraminifera present at this horizon in- clude Globotruncana churchi Martin, G. arca (Cushman) and Gublerina ornatissima (Cushman and Church). This data with bio- stratigraphic data from the Putah Creek, Pleasants Valley, and Tesla areas indicate that the radiolarian assemblage present at NSF 568-B, and NSF 572 is assignable to the upper part of the G. calcarata Zonule of Pessagno (1967, 1969a).

NSF 584. “Antelope Shale’ /‘‘Fiske Creek Formation.” Lime- stone nodules occurring in rhythmically bedded sandstones and mudstones /shales. USGS Sites Quad. (7.5’); TI7N, R4W, Sect. 8 (northeast corner); Funks Creek, Colusa County. Cenomanian planktonic Foraminifera have been figured from this locality by Kiipper (1956, pp. 40-47, pl. 8) and Douglas (1968, pp. 151-209, pl. 1). The presence of Rotalipora cushmani (Morrow) and Rotali- pora greenhornensits (Morrow) suggests a middle to late Ceno- manian age. Ammonites collected by the writer at this outcrop were identified by D. L. Jones (USGS, Menlo Park, California) as “Calycoceras sp.” Matsumoto (1960, p. 36) recorded middle to late Cenomanian ammonites Calycoceras boulei Collignon and Calyco- ceras cf. stoliczkat Collignon from this same locality and other localities in its vicinity.

NSF 591. “Antelope Shale’ /‘‘Fiske Creek Formation.” Lime- stone nodule associated with gray siltstones, mudstones, and sand- stones; 223 feet below the contact with the overlying Venado For- mation. USGS Sites Quadrangle (7.5’); T17N, R4W, Sect. 4 (S.W. corner) ; 1.05 miles west of Patterson Road. 2.9 miles N8°W of BM 261 (Section 20) on Sites-Maxwell Road. The radiolarian as- temblage at this locality is essentially the same as that occurring in the upper part of the “Antelope Shale’ /“Fiske Creek Formation” at Cache Creek. At Cache Creek (NSF 383-B) this assemblage is associated with early TTuronian megafossils, (7.e., Inoceramus labia- tus (Schlotheim) and Kanabiceras (?) sp.; identified by D. L. Jones, USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.) occurring in strata situated about 218 feet below the contact with the overlying Venado Formation.

14 BULLETIN 264

NSF 697. Venado Formation. Thick shale interval interbedded with massive sandstones; sample from limestone nodules in shales. USGS Glascock Mountain Quad. (7.5’) ; T12N, R4W, Sect. 3; south bank of Cache Creek, Yolo County; 0.9 miles due west of BM 527 in southern part of Section 2. Early Turonian megafossils (2.e., Inoceramus labiatus (Schlotheim) and Kanabiceras (?) sp. were collected by the writer from the “Antelope Shale’’/“Fiske Creek Formation” 242 feet below the base of the Venado Formation (megafossils identified by D. L. Jones, USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.) .

NSF 705-B. ‘Marsh Creek Formation”; 0.5 miles north of Contra Costa-Alameda County line on Vasco Road (Kellog Creek section). USGS Bryon Hot Springs Quadrangle (7.5’).

NOTATIONS ON THE INTEGRATION OF RADIOLARIAN RANGE ZONES WITH PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERAL ZONATION

(1) Rotalipora evoluta datum (first appearance). Corresponds to base of R. evoluta Subzone (Pessagno, 1967, 1969a) which in turn corresponds approximately to the lower part of the Mantelli- ceras mantelli Zone of ammonite workers; earliest Cenomanian. (2) Rotalipora cushmani datum (first appearance). Corresponds to base of R. cushmani-greenhornensis Subzone (Pessagno, 1967, 1969a) which in turn corresponds to upper part of Mantelliceras mantelli Zone of ammonite workers; late early Cenomanian. See Renz, Luterbacher, and Schneider (1963, pp. 1073-1116, pls. 1-9). (3) Planomalina buxtorfi datum (extinction). Corresponds to the lower part of R. cushmani-greenhornensis Subzone (Pessagno, ibid.) . Data available appear to indicate that this datum point oc- curs within the Acanthoceras rhotomagense Zone (middle Ceno- manian) of ammonite workers.

(4) First appearance of double-keeled Globigerinacea. Corre- sponds to base of M. sigali Subzone (Pessagno, ibid.) and to base of Actinocamax plenus Subzone in the Anglo-Parisian Basin (Jef- feries, 1961, p. 618, pl. 79, figs. 30 a-c). Jefferies considered the A. plenus Subzone early Turonian. (See discussion of Cenomanian- Turonian boundary problem in Pessagno, 1969a).

(5) First appearance of double-keeled Marginotruncanidae /Glo- bigerinacea with curved, raised sutures umbilically. Corresponds

Jurassic-CRETACEOUS RADIOLARIA: PESSAGNO 15

to the base of W. archaeocretacea Subzone (Pessagno, ibid.) Impos- sible at present to integrate precisely with ammonite zonation.

(6) M. helvetica—M. sigali datum (extinction). Corresponds to top of M. helvetica Assemblage Zone, W. archaeocretacea Sub- zone (Pessagno, ibid.) . Late Turonian ammonites such as Prionocy- clus, Prionotropis, and Coilposceras occur in the upper part of the W. archaeocretacea Subzone. For more detailed discussion see Pes- sagno (1969a) .

(7) Marginotruncanidae datum (extinction). Corresponds to top of M. concavata Subzone (Pessagno, tbid.); early Santonian. See Pessagno (1969a) for integration of planktonic foraminiferal and megafossil data.

(8) Globotruncana arca datum (first appearance). Corresponds to base of G. fornicata-stuartiformis Assemblage Zone (Pessagno, ibid.); basal Campanian. See Pessagno (1969a) for integration of megafossil and planktonic foraminiferal data and for discussion of Santonian Campanian boundary problem.

(9) Rugoglobigerina datum (first appearance).— Corresponds to the base of the Planoglobulina glabrata Zonule of Pessagno (1969a) ; late early Campanian. Not possible to integrate with megafossil zonation at present.

(10) Globotruncana hilli datum (first appearance). Corresponds to base of G. calcarata Zonule of Pessagno (ibid.) and to base of Bostrychoceras polyplocum Zone of ammonite workers latest Cam- panian. See Pessagno (1969a) for a more detailed discussion.

(11) Globotruncana linneiana—bulloides datum (extinction). Corresponds to the top of the G. fornicata—stuartiformis Assemblage Zone of Pessagno (ibid.); latest early Maestrichtian. No precise data available for the integration of planktonic foraminiferal and mega- fossil zonation.

(12) Globotruncana datum (extinction). Corresponds to top of G. contusa-stuartiformis Assemblage Zone, A. mayaroensis Subzone (Pessagno, ibid.). No precise data available for the integration of planktonic foraminiferal zonation with megafossil zonation.

TERMINOLOGY Bar. Rodlike structure forming component part of polygonal pore frame. Pie 2. fie. 1. Bracchiopyle. Cylindrical, porous tube extending in a distal direc-

16 BULLETIN 264

tion from the center of the tip of the primary ray. Only known to date in Halestum, n. gen. and Patulibracchium, n. gen. Pl. 1, figs. Nae

Central area. Area situated at juncture of rays. Pl. 1, fig. 1. Central spine. Long spine extending distally from center of ray fp. Pl We hie 25:

Lacuna, Cavity occurring in central area of some species of Crucella, n. gen. Pl. 18, fig. 1. Sometimes covered by thin veneer of spongy meshwork.

Lateral spines. Short spines flanking central spine, usually one to erther side; Pl. 1, fig: 5.

Node. See Pl. 2, fig. 1.

Patagium. Delicate spongy meshwork surrounding rays; comprised of polygonal pore frames consisting of bars lacking nodes at pore lrame vertices: Pl: 2, fig. 5.

Pore frame. Polygonal structure formed of bars or tabulae and bars usually connected (except with patagium) by nodes at ver- tices.

Primary ray. In Halesium, n. gen. and Patulibracchium, n. gen. Ray possessing bracchiopyle. PI. 1, fig. 1, Text-fig. 4.

Secondary ray. In Halestum, n. gen. and Patulibracchium, n. gen. Ray to left of primary ray. Pl. 1, fig. 1, Text-fig. 4.

Tabula, -ae. Vertical, porous, sheetlike structures occurring with Halestum, n. gen. Pl. 2, figs. 1.

Tertiary ray. In Halestum, n. gen. and Patulibracchium, n. gen. Ray to right of primary ray. Pl. 1, fig. 1, Text-fig. 4.

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS Phylum PROTOZOA Subphylum SARCODINA Class ACTINOPODEA Subclass RADIOLARIA Order POLYCYSTIDA Remarks. Riedel (1967, p. 291) emended the Polycystida Ehrenberg to include only those Radiolaria having a skeleton com- prised of opaline silica lacking admixed organic compounds. Suborder SPUMELLARIINA Superfamily SPONGODISCACEA Haeckel

Definition. Spumellariina with spongy tests of variable shape

(|

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18 BULLETIN 264

TEXT-FIG. 4

TEXT-FIGURE 4

X = point at center of central area. P = point at end of primary ray and at center of ray tip. S = point at end of secondary ray and center of ray tip. 2 = point at end of tertiary ray and at center of ray tip. = primary ray. PX = = length of primary ray exclusive of bracchiopyle. 2 = secondary ray. SX = length of secondary ray exclusive of central spine. 3 = tertiary ray. TX = length of tertiary ray exclusive of central spine. Angle PXS = angle formed by lines SX and PX. Angle SXT = angle formed by lines SX and TX. Angle TXP = angle formed by lines TX and PX.

JURASsIc-CRETACEOUS RADIOLARIA: PESSAGNO 19

lacking sieve plates, lattice shells, or chambered rays; with or with- out spines. Pore frames comprising spongy meshwork arranged with or without symmetry.

Remarks. —'The Spongodiscacea as defined above include all Spumellariina with spongy tests. The shape of the test and its sym- metry are not regarded as important at the superfamily level.

The Spongodiscacea are divided into two subsuperfamilies: the Spongodiscilae Haeckel and the Pseudoaulophacilae Riedel. The Spongodiscilae include all Spongodiscacea showing spongy mesh- work with no semblance of symmetry in the arrangement of their pore frames. The Pseudoaulophacilae include all Spongodiscacea with spongy meshwork arranged in some symmetrical fashion (e.g., in concentric rings, spirals, or parallel layers) .

Range. Paleozoic to Recent.

Occurrence. World-wide.

Subsuperfamily SPONGODISCILAE Haeckel

Definition. Spongodiscacea with irregular spongy meshwork with pore frames arranged unsymmetrically. Overall test shape varying with family or subfamily.

Range. Paleozoic to Recent.

Occurrence. World-wide.

Subsuperfamily PSEUDOAULOPHACILAE Riedel

Definition. Spongodiscacea with spongy meshwork comprised of pore frames arranged symmetrically in concentric rings, spirals, parallel layers, and so forth. Overall test shape varying with family or subfamily.

Range. Paleozoic? Mesozoic to Recent.

Occurrence. World-wide.

Family HAGIASTRIDAE Riedel, emended

Type genus. Hagiastrum Haeckel.

Emended definition. Spongodiscacea with two, three, or four arms or rays. Meshwork arranged in parallel to subparallel layers axially. Individual layers comprised of pore frames arranged linearly or sublinearly.

Remarks.— This definition corresponds closely to Riedel’s (1970) original definition of the Hagiastrinae. The Hagiastrinae

20 BULLETIN 264

Riedel are restricted in this report to forms showing four rays arranged at right angles along two axes.

The Hagiastridae are divided herein into three subfamilies on the basis of the number and arrangement of rays: (1) the Am- phibrachiinae, n. subfam., (2) the Patulibracchiinae, n. subfam., and (3) the Hagiastrinae Riedel. These subfamilies are character- ized by having two, three, and four rays respectively.

Range. Mesozoic.

Occurrence. World-wide.

Subfamily AMPHIBRACHIINAE, new subfamily

Type genus. Amphibrachium Haeckel.

Description. Test as with family. Comprised of two straight, opposing, unchambered rays arranged along one axis and extending outward from small central area.

Remarks. The Amphibrachiinae, n. subfam., differ from the Patulibracchiinae, n. subfam., by possessing two rather than three rays.

Range and occurrence. Jurassic; Early Cretaceous of Europe. Jurassic (Tithonian) of Blake-Bahama Basin.

Genus AMPHIBRACHIUM Haeckel emended

1881. Amphibrachium Haeckel, Jenaische Zeitsch. Naturw., vol. 15 (n. ser.,

vol. 18), No. 3, p. 460.

1954. Amphibrachium Haeckel, Campbell, Treatise on Invert. Paleont., Pt. D,

Protista 3, p. D86. [Inadvertently designated A. diminutum Rist, 1885

(p. 296, pl. 7, fig. 5) as type species. ]

Type species.—Amphibrachium diminutum Riist, 1885. A. diminutum appears to have been inadvertently designated as the type species by Campbell in 1954. No mention was made by Camp- bell (¢bid.) that this represented a subsequent designation.

Emended definition. —‘Test as with subfamily. Comprised of two opposing rays extending out from a minute, often asymmetrical central area. Rays with expanded, somewhat bulbous tips lacking large spines, but sometimes possessing irregularly distributed small spines. With or without patagium.

Range and occurrence.— As defined above, Amphibrachium appears to be restricted to strata of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) age. Jurassic Neocomian of Europe; Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of the Blake-Bahama Basin (JOIDES DSD) Leg 1, site 5A; Core 7, Section 1: 274.3 meters) .

JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS RADIOLARIA: PESSAGNO 21

Amphibrachium petersoni, Pessagno n. sp. Pl. 19, figs. 1,8

Description. Test as with genus. Rays subequal in length. Shorter ray with expanded triangularly shaped tip; other ray with rounded tip. Both rays terminating in short spines; rays elliptical in cross-section. Meshwork with square to rectangular pore frames arranged in three markedly linear rows. Central area small.

Remarks. Amphibrachium petersoni, n. sp. differs from A. sansalvadorensis, n. sp. (1) by having wider, shorter rays which are subequal in length; (2) by having one ray with a bulbous tip and the other with an expanded triangular tip.

- This species is named for Dr. M. N. A. Peterson (Scripps In- stitution of Oceanography), Chief Scientist of the JOIDES Deep Sea Drilling Project.

Measurements.— Length of rays Width of rays microns microns Holotype (USNM 165578) 370 80 430 Paratype (USNM 165580) 350 60 370 Paratype (USNM 165580) 320 80 380 Paratype (USNM 165579) 390 80 460 Paratype (Pessagno Coll.) 340 70 400

Type locality. JOIDES (DSD), Leg I, Site 5A, Core 7, Sec- tion 1: 274.3 meters. Blake-Bahama Basin.

Deposition of types. Holotype = USNM 165578. Paratypes = USNM_ 165579 165580 and Pessagno Collection, University of Texas at Dallas.

Range and occurrence. Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Blake- Bahama Basin in so far as known.

Amphibrachium sansalvadorensis Pessagno, n. sp. Pl. 19, figs. 9, 10

Description. Test as with genus. One ray slightly shorter than other; both rays elliptical in axial section. Meshwork with square pores frames arranged in a markedly linear fashion in three rows. Rays with bulbous tips with several irregularly distributed short spines. Central area small.

Remarks. A. sansalvadorensis, n. sp. differs from A. di- minutum Rist (1) by having proportionately longer rays; (2) by

22 BULLETIN 264

having markedly straight rays with square meshwork; and (3) by having short spines on its ray tips.

This species is named for the island of San Salvador in the Bahama Islands.

Measurements. Length of rays Width of rays microns microns Hclotype (USNM 165568) 500 40 550 Paratype (USNM 165569) 470 60 560 Paratype (USNM 165570) 450 50 560 Paratype (Pessagno Coll.) 410 50 460 Paratype (Pessagno Coll.) 380 50 480

Type locality.— JOIDES (DSD), Leg I, Site 5A, Core 7, Sec- tion 1 (top) : 274.3 meters. Blake-Bahama Basin.

Deposition of types. Holotype = USNM 165568. Paratypes = USNM_ 165569 165570 and Pessagno Collection, University of ‘Texas at Dallas.

Range and occurrence.—'Yo date, this species has only been found in strata of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) age at its type locality.

Subfamily PATULIBRACCHIINAE, new subfamily

Type genus. Patulibracchium, n. genus.

Description. ‘Test as with family. Comprised of three straight, unchambered rays extending out from a small central area.

Remarks. The Patulibracchiinae, n. subfam., differ from the Amphibrachiinae, n. subfam., by possessing three rather than two rays and from